Here’s a quick look at the simple aircraft bodyparts and what they allow the aircraft to do.
Long cambered fixed surfaces extending from the fuselage to aid flight.
Struts from the fuselage connect the wheels.
Located at the trailing (rear) edges of each wing, these can be manually lowered by a lever in the cockpit to aid in take-off and landing.
Located at the rear of the tail fin and is positioned vertically. Operated by pedals and the feet of the pilot, the rudder enables the plane to YAW, or move the nose of the plane left or right. The rudder is used both on the ground and in the air.
Located on the outer edges of the trailing (rear) edge of the wing next to the flaps. The aileron is operated by the pilot rotating the control wheel. The aileron enables the plane to ROLL from side to side, allowing turns in flight.
These are similar to ailerons but alter the plane’s PITCH or angle of attack and therefore their purpose is to take the plane up or down. Elevators are operated by the pilot moving the control wheel forward and backward.